• Users Online: 114
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 346-352

Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a biomarker for the diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhotic patients


1 Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Date of Submission23-Jul-2013
Date of Acceptance23-Aug-2013
Date of Web Publication1-Feb-2014

Correspondence Address:
Dina H Ziada
Ass. Prof. of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease Department, Tanta Univeristy, Egypt, Al Gish Street, Tanta Univeristy, Hospital, Tanta
Egypt
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/1110-1415.126207

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Purpose
The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) as a biomarker for hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in patients with cirrhosis.
Patients and methods
Eighty-two cirrhotic patients were enrolled in this study. Urinary levels of NGAL were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ten normal healthy individuals were enrolled as a control group. Group I included 15 cirrhotic patients with normal kidney function. Group II included 52 cirrhotic patients with acute impaired kidney function: 21 with prerenal azotemia, 22 with HRS, and nine with intrinsic acute kidney injury (iAKI). Group III included 15 cirrhotic patients with chronic impaired kidney function. Group IV included 10 healthy normal individuals as control.
Results
In HRS, uNGAL was significantly different from patients with either iAKI or prerenal azotemia. uNGAL levels in patients with prerenal azotemia were low and equivalent to levels in patients with normal kidney function and chronic kidney disease. uNGAL elevation was more prominent in type 1 than in type 2. Serum creatinine was significantly higher in patients with iAKI compared with those with normal kidney function and chronic kidney disease but was statistically similar to those with prerenal azotemia and HRS. Patients with HRS had a significantly higher level of serum creatinine than those with prerenal azotemia, but the level was similar to patients with iAKI. Fractional excretion of sodium was significantly higher in patients with iAKI than in patients with either HRS or prerenal azotemia.
Conclusion
uNGAL levels may be useful in the differential diagnosis of HRS from other causes of acute impairment of kidney function in cirrhosis.

Keywords: Cirrhosis, hepatorenal syndrome, urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin


How to cite this article:
El-Bassat H, Ziada DH, Taha A, Alm-Eldin R. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a biomarker for the diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhotic patients. Tanta Med J 2013;41:346-52

How to cite this URL:
El-Bassat H, Ziada DH, Taha A, Alm-Eldin R. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a biomarker for the diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhotic patients. Tanta Med J [serial online] 2013 [cited 2017 Aug 23];41:346-52. Available from: http://www.tdj.eg.net/text.asp?2013/41/4/346/126207


  Introduction Top


Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis is common and lethal. Up to 20% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis develop AKI [1],[2] . In cirrhosis, AKI types include prerenal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), and intrinsic acute kidney injury (iAKI), but their mortality risks vary. These types of AKI are difficult to distinguish clinically, as serum creatinine (sCr) poorly discriminates AKI type in cirrhosis [3],[4],[5] .

The International Ascites Club (IAC) classified HRS as a specific form of AKI [6] . Currently, there is a lack of a kidney function biomarker that both rapidly and accurately discriminates HRS from other forms of AKI. Meanwhile, the discrimination between different AKI type depends on the 48-h diagnostic algorithm proposed by the IAC, which includes diuretic withdrawal and volume administration [7] . This algorithm not only delays AKI treatment but it potentially worsens portal pressure elevation in patients with HRS [4],[8],[9] . sCr is not a specific marker that can differentiate between different types of kidney dysfunction. It does not completely distinguish the relationship between kidney function and different types of kidney failure or portend different prognoses [10] . These limitations of sCr highlight the need for improved diagnostic methods to determine AKI type in cirrhosis. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a protein expressed by injured kidney tubular epithelia [11] . Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) levels rise exponentially early in the course of AKI before sCr elevation [12],[13] . We aimed at assessing the usefulness of uNGAL in the differential diagnosis of HRS from other causes of acute impairment of kidney function in cirrhosis.


  Patients and methods Top


After the study protocol had been approved by Tanta University ethical committee, 82 adult patients with cirrhosis were prospectively recruited from the outpatient clinics and inpatient wards of the Departments of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Internal Medicine at Tanta University Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, and 10 healthy individuals were recruited as the control group. All participating patients provided informed consent before taking part in the study. Patients were diagnosed as having cirrhosis on the basis of established clinical, laboratory, and/or imaging criteria with ultrasound examination.

The cirrhotic patients were classified as follows:

(1) Group I included 15 cirrhotic patients with normal kidney function.

(2) Group II included 52 cirrhotic patients with acute impaired kidney function.

(a) Twenty-one patients with prerenal azotemia.

(b) Twenty-two patients with HRS.

(c) Nine patients with iAKI.

(4) Group III included 15 cirrhotic patients with chronic impaired kidney function.

(5) Group IV included 10 healthy normal individuals as control.

Exclusion criteria were as follows:

(1) Chronic kidney disease (CKD) under dialysis.

(2) Urinary tract infection.

(3) Patients with urinary obstruction or previous kidney transplantation.

Inclusion criteria were as follows:

(1) Cirrhotic patients with or without infections other than that of the urinary tract.

(2) Measurement of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) and uNGAL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

The 24-h urine amount was measured. A volume of 10 ml of urine sample was stored at 80°C until measurement using commercial NGAL (Quantikine; R&D System Inc., Minneapolis, MN USA) ELISA kit in accordance with respective manufacturer's instructions. The t-value of 24-h urinary excretion of NGAL was calculated by multiplying the urine concentration by the urine amount. A volume of 5 ml blood was collected from each patient under complete aseptic condition. The plasma level of NGAL in plasma was estimated using commercially available ELISA kit (036; Bioporto Diagnostics, Gentofte, Denmark).

Calculation of the fractional excretion of Na (FE Na ) was carried out by the following equation [14] :



where U Na is urine Na, P Na is plasma Na, P Cr is plasma creatinine, and U Cr is urine creatinine. Urinary Na level was estimated by emission flow photometry [15] , and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated according to the Cockcroft-Gault formula [16] .

Definition of kidney disease

Impairment of kidney function was diagnosed when sCr was greater than 1.5 mg/dl. This value was chosen because it has been selected in several consensuses and conferences as a cutoff to define impairment of kidney function in cirrhosis [17] , Garcia et al., 2004 [1] .

Prerenal azotemia due to volume depletion was considered when patients had a history of fluid loss in the preceding days due to bleeding, diuretic overdose, or other cause. A transient increase in sCr to greater than 1.5 mg/dl with subsequent decrease in sCr to less than 1.5 mg/dl was observed within 48 h of treatment with intravenous hydration. CKD was defined by the evidence of structural kidney abnormalities by imaging and GFR less than 60 ml/min as assessed by the MDRD formula [18] . HRS type 1 was defined by IAC [7] as rapidly progressive renal failure with doubling of the initial sCr to a level greater than 2.5 mg/dl in less than 2 weeks in the presence of cirrhosis and ascites that failed to improve after 48 h of diuretic withdrawal and volume expansion in the absence of shock, nephrotoxic medications, and parenchymal kidney disease (proteinuria>500 mg/day, microhematuria>50 red blood cells/high powered field, and abnormal kidney imaging). iAKI was defined as acute elevation in sCr to greater than 1.5 mg/dl, not responding to 48 h of volume resuscitation and not meeting the criteria for HRS [19] .

Statistical analysis

Database management and statistical analysis were performed using a statistical software package (SPSS 19). The t-test, the χχ2 -test, and the compare proportion tests were used for comparison between two groups. The Spearman correlation test was used to test correlation between different variables. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to test the accuracy of uNGAL in the diagnosis of HRS.

A receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimum cutoff value for the studied marker. Significance was adopted at P-value less than 0.05 for interpretation of the results of tests of significance.


  Results Top


Clinical and laboratory data of all groups are shown in [Table 1]. In 21 patients with prerenal azotemia, volume depletion was due to diuretic overdose in 11, gastrointestinal bleeding in four, and diarrhea in six. Abnormal ultrasound appearance of the kidneys was present in 10 patients with CKD and a combination of low GFR with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The remaining five patients were diagnosed by kidney biopsy, which showed chronic interstitial nephritis in three, membranous glomerulopathy in one, and hypertensive nephropathy in one patient. Of the 22 patients with HRS, 12 had type 1 and 10 had type 2. Infections were present in seven patients: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in four, chest infections in two, and cellulitis in one patient. There was a significantly higher level of serum bilirubin in patients with cirrhosis compared with control (P = 0.001). In the patients with four categories of renal impairment, serum bilirubin levels were significantly higher compared with those with normal kidney function. Serum albumin, sodium, and GFR were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis compared with control (P = 0.001, 0.03, and 0.001, respectively). FE Na was significantly higher in patients with iAKI compared with other types of renal impairment, patients with normal kidney function, and control (P = 0.0001). Urinary sodium levels were significantly low in patients with HRS compared with other types of AKI (P = 0.0001).
Table 1: Clinical and laboratory data for all studied groups

Click here to view


[Table 2] shows the comparison between HRS patients with and without infections with respect to kidney parameters. Patients with HRS type 1 had significantly higher values of uNGAL than type 2 (131 + 13.5 vs. 105 + 30.5; P = 0.001).
Table 2: Comparison of kidney parameters in HRS patients

Click here to view


[Table 3] shows kidney function biomarkers in the cirrhotic groups with and without renal impairment. Patients with impaired kidney function had significantly higher uNGAL levels compared with those with normal kidney function and healthy control (P = 0.001). Patients with HRS had significantly higher level of uNGAL compared with those with prerenal azotemia (P = 0.01), CKD (P ≤ 0.05), or cirrhotic patients with normal kidney function (P = 0.01). The highest values of uNGAL were detected in patients with iAKI (P = 0.001). sCr level was significantly higher in patients with HRS compared with those with prerenal azotemia, but the level was similar to patients with iAKI. FE Na was significantly higher in patients with iAKI than in patients with either HRS or prerenal azotemia.
Table 3: Kidney function biomarkers in the different types of renal impairment and normal kidney function

Click here to view


[Table 4] shows uNGAL and pNGAL in cirrhotic patients with and without renal impairment including and excluding infection. pNGAL and uNGAL levels were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients with impaired kidney function either with or without infection compared with those with normal kidney function (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference between different types of AKI with respect to pNGAL levels (P > 0.05). Patients without infections had lower values of urinary and pNGAL; yet, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05).
Table 4: Urinary and plasma NGAL levels in patients with renal impairment including and excluding infections

Click here to view


A cutoff value of 110 ng/ml uNGAL had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 90.2, 67.9, 79.0, 91, and 88.75%, respectively, to diagnose HRS [Table 5].
Table 5: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of uNGAL in diagnosis of HRS

Click here to view


Positive correlation was found between uNGAL and sCr (r =0.462, P = 0.042), whereas no correlation was detected with pNGAL (r = 0.203, P = 0.39; [Table 6]).
Table 6: Correlation between uNGAL and other parameters

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In patients with cirrhosis, the differential diagnosis of acute renal impairment of kidney function is further complicated by the fact that they may develop HRS [1],[17] . HRS is characterized by markedly reduced GFR in the setting of preserved tubular function [20],[21] . Nevertheless, there is some evidence of the presence of renal parenchymal lesions in these patients. NGAL is secreted into urine by the thick ascending limb of Henle and collecting ducts of the kidney. Thus, urinary excretion of NGAL is increased in AKI but not in functional AKI [22] .

Although sCr levels were elevated in patients with impaired kidney function, sCr poorly differentiated AKI type. sCr was significantly higher in patients with HRS compared with those with prerenal azotemia but was similar to patients with iAKI. sCr was significantly higher in patients with iAKI compared with those with normal kidney function and CKD but was statistically similar to those with prerenal azotemia and HRS. These findings are similar to those reported by Verna et al. [19] , who found that sCr was not different between patients with iAKI and HRS. In addition, FE Na was significantly higher in patients with iAKI than in patients with either HRS or prerenal azotemia. FE Na levels did not discriminate patients with HRS from those with prerenal azotemia. These findings are in accordance with those of Verna and colleagues [19],[22] .

This study revealed that patients with impaired kidney function had significantly higher uNGAL levels compared with those without impairment of kidney function and healthy controls. This is in accordance with the study by Verna and colleagues [19],[22] .

Few studies have reported the usefulness of uNGAL in the differential diagnosis of impairment of kidney functions. The results of this study showed that patients with HRS had significantly higher levels of uNGAL compared with those with prerenal azotemia, CKD, or cirrhotic patients with normal kidney function. To further assess the relationship between uNGAL levels and HRS, we divided the patients with HRS into type 1 and type 2. In patients with classical HRS, those with type 1 had significantly higher values of uNGAL than those with HRS type 2. This was in agreement with the study by Verna and colleagues [19],[22] . In patients with prerenal azotemia, uNGAL levels showed no significant difference compared with those with CKD and normal kidney function. Our findings were in agreement with those of Verna et al. [19] but were in contrast to the study by Fagundes et al. [22] in which it was reported that uNGAL levels in patients with CKD were not significantly different from those with HRS type 2 or prerenal azotemia. They reported that patients with classical type 1 HRS had significantly higher levels of uNGAL than those with type 2 HRS, CKD, or prerenal azotemia due to volume depletion. This was not surprising considering that no acute injury of tubular cells is known to exist in these conditions.

The mechanisms by which patients with HRS have high level of uNGAL remain uncertain. HRS physiology is classically thought to be an extreme prerenal state [23],[24] with severe renovascular vasoconstriction and decreased GFR but normal intrinsic kidney function. Kidney function can return to normal after improvement of hepatic hemodynamics or after transplantation of the kidney into a recipient with normal hepatic function [25],[26] . However, pathologic investigations have reported subtle kidney tubular and glomerular damage in HRS kidneys, some seen only with electron microscopy [27],[28] . Perhaps these results from cellular changes associated with chronic activation of angiotensin-aldosterone signaling [29] . It is conceivable that profound renovascular constriction may cause subclinical tubular damage in at least a subset of nephrons, not detectable by urinary sodium, which is not sensitive enough to detect mild or patchy tubular epithelial damage. These findings were supported by Cavallin et al. [30] , who reported that type 1 HRS could not be entirely functional in nature but may be associated with tubular damage. This fact may affect to some extent the response of this complication to treatment with terlipressin and albumin in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

This study revealed that patients with HRS associated with active bacterial infection had levels of uNGAL none significantly higher compared with those with HRS in the absence of infections. This was in agreement with the study by Verna et al. [19] . In contrast, other studies demonstrated significantly higher levels of uNGAL in patients with HRS and infection than those without infection [1],[17],[22] . Patients with urinary tract infections were not excluded in these studies. These findings suggest the existence of some degree of tubular injury in patients with HRS associated with active bacterial infection. Fagundes et al. [22] reported statistically nonsignificant differences in uNGAL between patients with HRS in the presence of infections other than urinary tract infection and those without infections.

In contrast to uNGAL levels, the pNGAL were not helpful in the differential diagnosis of impaired kidney function. Patients with all types of impairment of kidney function showed higher levels of pNGAL than those with normal kidney function. These findings were in accordance with Gerbes et al. [31] . However, when patients were categorized into different types of renal impairment, there were no significant differences in pNGAL across groups. These results suggest the absence of correlation between uNGAL and pNGAL. This supports the hypothesis that uNGAL originates from renal tubules. Studies on experimental animals have demonstrated convincingly an increased expression of uNGAL in the renal tubules in conditions of ischemia or toxicity [32],[33] . In addition to the kidney tubules, NGAL may be expressed in the polymorphonuclear cells and macrophages as a result of activation of the innate immunity through a pathway that involves Toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin 1-b.

No correlation was detected between urinary and pNGAL, which was similar to the findings of Fagundes et al. [22] , whereas there was a positive correlation between uNGAL and sCr. This finding was in agreement with the result of Haase et al. [34] , who reported an increase in uNGAL several days before increase in sCr.

At a cutoff value of 110 ng/ml, uNGAL had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 90.2, 67.9, 79.0, 91, and 88.75%, respectively, to diagnose HRS. These were close to the findings of Verna et al. [19] , where they diagnosed this level for non-pre-renal AKI. Other studies reported a cutoff value greater than 150 ng/ml to diagnose AKI in noncirrhotic patients [5],[12],[35],[37] .


  Conclusion Top


uNGAL can be used to differentiate HRS from other types of AKI in cirrhotic patients, with 90.2% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity at a cutoff value of 110 ng/ml. Significantly higher levels were detected in type 1 HRS than in type 2. There was no correlation between urinary and pNGAL in cirrhotic patients with impaired kidney function.


  Acknowledgements Top


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.Garcia -Taso G, Parikh CR, Viola A Acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2008; 48:2064.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Wu CC, Yeung LK, Tsai WS, Tseng CF, Chu P, Huang TY, et al. Incidence and factor predictive of acute renal b failure in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. Clin Nephrol 2006; 65:28.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Caregaro L, Menon F, Angeli P, Amodio P, Merkel C, Bortoluzzi A, et al. Limitation of serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance as filtration markers in cirrhosis. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:201.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Cholongitas E, Shusang V, Marelli L, Nair D, Thomas M, Patch D, et al. Review article; renal function assessment in cirrhosis - difficulties and alternative measurement. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26:969.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Bennett M, Dent CL, Ma Q, FNx01Dastrala S,FNx01Grenier F, ‡Workman R, et al. Urine NGAL predict severity of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: a prospective study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3:665.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Bellomo R, Ronco C, Kellum JA, Mehta RL, Palevsky P. Acute renal failure definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs; the second International Consensus Conference of acute dialysis quality initiative (ADQI) Group. Crit Care 2004; 8:R204.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Salerno F, Gerbes A, Gines P, Wong F, Arroyo V. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. Gut 2007; 56:1310.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Cereda JM, Roulot D, Braillon A, Moreau R, Koshy A, Lebrec D et al. Reduction of portal pressure by acute administration of frusemide in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1989; 9:246.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Okumura H, Aramaki T, Katsuta Y, Satomura K, Akaike M, Sekiyama T, et al. Reduction in hepatic venous pressure gradient as a consequence of volume contraction due to chronic administration of spironolactone in patients with cirrhosis and no ascites. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86:46.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Gines A, Escorsell A, Gines P, Saló J, Jiménez W, Inglada L, et al. Incidence, predictive factors and prognosis of the hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis with ascites. Gastroenterology 1993; 105:229.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Mishra J, Mori K, Ma Q, Prada A, Mitsnefes M, Zahedi K, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin: a novel early urinary biomarker for cisplastin nephrotoxicity. Am J Nephrol 2004; 24:2534-2543.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Cruz D, de Cal M, Garzotto F, Perazella MA, Lentini P, Corradi V, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin is an early biomarker for acute kidney injury in an adult ICU population [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 19:565.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Mori K, Nakao K Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin as the real-time indicator of active kidney damage. Kidney Int 2007; 71:967.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Stein JH, ed. Internal medicine 4th ed. 1994:47-52 Mosby-YearBook, St. Louis, Missouri.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Kawasaki T, Itoh K, Uezono K, Sasaki H A simple method for estimating 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion from second morning voiding urine specimen in adults.Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1993; 20:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Cockcroft DW, Gault HM Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976; 16:31-41.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Arroyo V, Gines P, Gerbes AL, Dudley FJ, Gentilini P, Laffi G, et al. Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. Hepatology 1996; 23:164-176.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Marsh J, Stevens LA, Kusek JW, et al. Expressing the modification of dirt in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate with standardized serum creatinine values. Clin Chem 2007; 53:766-771.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Verna EC, Brown RS, Farrand E, Pichardo EM, Forster CS, Sola-Del Valle DA, et al. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin predict mortality and identifies acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 2012; 57:2362-2370.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Angeli P, Merkel C Pathogenesis and management of hepatorenal syndrome in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2009; 48:593.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Gines P, Schrier RW Renal failure in cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:1279.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Fagundes C, Pepin MN, Guevara M, Barreto R, Casals G, Solà E, et al. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin as biomarker in differential diagnosis of impairment of kidney function in cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2012; 57:267-273.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Ochs A, Rossele M, Haag K, Hauenstein KH, Deibert P, Siegerstetter V, et al. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt procedure for refractory ascites. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:1192.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Iwatsuki S, Popovtzer MM, Cormal JL, Ishikawa M, Putnam CW, Katz FH, et al. Recovery from hepatorenal syndrome after orthotopic liver transplantation. N Engl J Med 1973; 289:1155-1159.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.McDonald FD, Brennan LA, Turcotte JG. Sever hypertension and elevated plasma renin activity following transplantation of hepatorenal donor kidney into a noephric recipients. Am J Med 1973; 54:39.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Koppel MH, Coburn JW, Mims MM, Goldstein H, Boyle JD, Rubini ME, et al. Transplantation of cadaveric kidneys from patients with hepatorenal syndrome. Evidence for the functional nature of renal failure in advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med 1969; 280:1367.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Mandal AK, Landing M, Fahmy A Acute tubular necrosis in hepatorenal syndrome: an electron microscopy study. Am J Kidney Dis 1982; 2:363.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Kanel GC,Peters RL Glomerular tubular reflux - a morphologic renal lesion associated with hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology 1984; 4:242.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Hollenburg NK Aldosterone in the development and progression of renal injury. Kidney Int 2004; 66:1.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Cavallin M, Fasolato A, Sticca F, Gola E, Bortoluzzi A, Morando F, et al. Increased urinary level of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin in patients with cirrhosis and type I hepatorenal syndrome. 2011; 54: 1254A-1255A.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Gerbes AL, Benesic Am, Vogeser M, Krag A, Bendtsen F, Møller S. Serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin a sensitive novel marker of renal impairment in liver cirrhosis? Digestion 2001; 84:82.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Ko GJ, Grigoryev DN, Linfert D, Jang HR, Watkins T, Cheadle C, et al. Transcriptional analysis of kidney during repair from AKI reveals possible roles for NGAL and KIM-1 as biomarker of AKI to CKD transition. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2010; 298:F1472-1483.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Paragas N, Qju A, Zhang Q, Devarajan P, Barasch J. The Ngal reporter mouse defects the response of the kidney to injury in real time. Nat Med 2011; 17:1451-1458.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Haase M, Devarajan P, Fielitz AH, Magdeburg C, Bellomo R, Cruz DN, et al. The outcome of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin positive subclinical acute kidney injury. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 57:1752.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Dent CL, Ma Q, Dastrala S, Bennett M, Mitsnefes MM, Barasch J, et al. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin predicts acute kidney injury, morbidity and mortality after predict cardiac surgery: a prospective uncontrolled cohort study. Crit Care 2007; 11:R127.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Haase M, Bellomo R, Devarajan P, Schlattmann P, Haase-Fielitz A. Accuracy of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) in diagnosis and prognosis in acute kidney injury: a systemic review and meta analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54:1012-1024.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Mishra J, Ma Q, Prada A, Mitsnefes M, Zahedi K, Yang J, et al. Identification of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a novel early urinary biomarker for ischemic renal injury. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14:2534-2543.  Back to cited text no. 37
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Patients and methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed936    
    Printed24    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded110    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]