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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-8

A study of different parameters of human extremities and its relationship with human height in residents of eastern India


Department of Anatomy, IMS & SUM Hospital, B.O. Ghatikia, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Date of Submission23-Apr-2014
Date of Acceptance28-Dec-2014
Date of Web Publication6-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Biswa Bhusan Mohanty
Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, IMS & SUM Hospital, B.O. Ghatikia, Bhubaneswar - 751003, Odisha
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1110-1415.154557

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  Abstract 

Introduction
Height is defined as distance between vertex of head and surface. Reconstruction of the stature from various parameters is quite valuable for identification & for establishing the individuality of a person.
Aims and Objectives
The present study was done to determine the stature from parameters of upper limb & lower limb of individuals having age group of 17-25.
Materials and Methods
Authors have studied 213 male and 87 female, healthy subjects in Department of Anatomy, IMS & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar. All individuals were measured for height and arm, forearm, hand & foot length.
Observation and Results
The data thus obtained has been tabulated & subjected to statistical computation to derive the regression equations.
Conclusion
The results concluded that height has a definite correlation with the parameters. This conclusion is of utmost importance to anthropologist and forensic experts for estimation of stature from mutilated, decomposed or fragmentary skeletal remains.

Keywords: Estimation, parameters, limb


How to cite this article:
Mohanty BB, Agrawal D, Baisakh P, Samantsinghar P, Kumar S, Chinara PK. A study of different parameters of human extremities and its relationship with human height in residents of eastern India. Tanta Med J 2015;43:1-8

How to cite this URL:
Mohanty BB, Agrawal D, Baisakh P, Samantsinghar P, Kumar S, Chinara PK. A study of different parameters of human extremities and its relationship with human height in residents of eastern India. Tanta Med J [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 Jun 22];43:1-8. Available from: http://www.tdj.eg.net/text.asp?2015/43/1/1/154557


  Introduction Top


Anthropometry is a series of systemized measuring techniques that express quantitatively the dimensions of human body and skeleton. Anthropometry is often viewed as a traditional and perhaps the basic tool of biological anthropology, but it has a long tradition of use in forensic sciences. Its use is increasing day by day in various fields especially in the discipline of forensic medicine. The significance and importance of craniometry, somatometry, cephalometry and osteometry in the identification of human remain have been described and a new term "Forensic Anthropometry" is coined. Relationship that exists between different parts of body and height has been of great interest to anthropologists, forensic and medical scientists for many years. This is because of the increase in the number of catastrophic events causing mass death from natural and manmade errors. Such disasters like flooding, tsunamis, earthquakes, plain crashes, train crashes, terrorist attacks usually requires the identification of victims from fragmentary and dismembered human remains. The lengths of some long limb bones were found to be highly correlated with stature [1] . In the present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the height not only from hand length, but also from arm length, forearm length and foot length.


  Material and methods Top


The current research was conducted using students of IMS & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. It was undertaken in the Department of Anatomy with 300 students as subjects after ethical clearance. The participants were students of first year M.B.B.S. (213 males & 87 females).


  Inclusion criteria for subjects Top


  • Age should be between 17-25 year
  • Belong to middle socio economic status
  • Should have no skeletal or pathological changes.



  Exclusion criteria Top


  • Those who do not know their age
  • Those with skeletal deformity or growth disorders
The study included this age group because as the bone growth stops after 21 year, so the ratio between height & limbs will not change after that age. They were placed on the standard anatomical position with the head on the Frankfurt horizontal plane. All of the measurements were taken from the left side for uniform readings. For the convenience of readers, the dimensions were taken in 1 cm unit with standard anthropometric instruments such as Verniers sliding caliper, anthropometer, measuring tape, scale and wooden base osteometric board.

To ensure accurate results, all the measurements were done by one person while sitting on a low chair to avoid errors that could be caused by discomfort. All subjects who did not know their age and those who had recognized skeletal deformities were exempted from the study. The measurements were repeated to avoid errors. The measurements were taken at a fixed time, between 2.00 pm to 4.30 pm, to eliminate diurnal variation. All measurements were taken by one person to avoid personal errors.


  The Parameters taken are Top


  1. Stature: Maximum distance from vertex to floor, maintaining the anatomical position and Frankfort plane.
  2. Arm Length: Maximum distance from the acromian angle to the external superior border of head of radius.
  3. Forearm Length: Maximum distance from marked head of radius to the tip of the lateral styloid [Figure 1].
  4. Hand Length: Maximum distance between the middle point of the line connecting the styloid processes and the tip of 3 rd digit [Figure 2].
  5. Foot Length: Maximum distance between acropodion (it is the most forwardly projecting point on the head of the 1 st or 2 nd toe whichever is longer when the subject is standing erect on a flat hard surface) to the pternion (it is the most backward projecting point on the heel when the subject is standing upright with equal pressure on both the feet) [Figure 3].
Figure: Forearm Length: From head of radius to the tip of the lateral styloid.

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Figure 2: HAND LENGTH: Distance from the middle point of the line connecting the styloid processes to the tip of 3rd digit.

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Figure 3: Foot Length: Distance from acropodion to the pternion.

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  Observations and discussion Top


From the [Table 1], it's found that as the height increases, the number of samples in case of females decreases. So the graph becomes like a straight line with a negative slope. So, maximum number of samples is found at a height range of 150-155 cm. But in case of males, the graph becomes bell shaped i.e. maximum number of samples are found in the middle at the height range of 165-170 cm [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Graph showing different females and males with different heights.

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Table 1: Number of males and females with different heights

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[Table 2] shows average arm length of male persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm [Figure 5]. The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Figure 5: Height of the individual (male) in relation to arm length.

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Table 2: Height of the individual (male) in relation to arm length

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Y = −104.44 + 8.083x

Where Y = Height of the individual

−104.44 = Intercept

8.083 = Slope

X = Arm length of the individual

[Table 3] shows average arm length of female persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm [Figure 6]. The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Figure 6: Height of the individual (female) in relation to arm length

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Table 3: Height of the individual (female) in relation to arm length

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Y = −206.96 + 11.52x

Where Y = Height of the individual

−206.96 = Intercept

11.52 = Slope

X = Arm length of the individual

In a study by Nath, Rajni and Chhibber [2] on 302 Punjabi females of Delhi, derived regression formulae for estimation of stature from upper arm length was, 82.68 + 2.29 (UAL) whereas in present study the regression equation for females was -206.96 + 11.52(UAL). Similarly, Nath and Krishan [3] also formulated multiplication factors for reconstruction of stature from upper arm length in 276 Hindu (Baniya) females of Delhi, having age range from 15-22 years. The multiplication factor was found to be 4.95 whereas in this our study the multiplication factor in Eastern Indian females was 4.97. Nath, Garg and Krishan [4] also conducted a study on 160 male Rajputs of Tehsil Chakrata; district Dehradun, Uttar Pradesh in age range of 16-35 years. The multiplication factor was 5.12 whereas in comparison, the multiplication factor from upper arm length in male Eastern Indians was 4.97. Anand and Nath [5] conducted a study on Rajput males and females of Pauri Garhwal and calculated multiplication factor for upper arm length to be 5.59 for males and 5.89 for females. In present study the multiplication factor for upper arm length came out be 4.97 for males and 5.001 in females. Another study done by Jain and Nath [6] on 132 male Brahmins of Kumaon in age range of 17-19 years and the multiplication factor was calculated to be 5.44 whereas in comparison in present study the multiplication factor in North Indian males was 4.97.

In present study, the linear regression equations was also calculated for estimation of stature from upper arm length in Eastern Indian males which was

S = -104.44 + 8.083 X arm length.

From the [Table 4], we see that, as the height increases, the arm length of both male and female also increases [Figure 7]. The difference was found to be decreased up to sub group 160-165 cms then increases in subsequent groups. There were no female found in 175-180 cms height group.
Figure 7: Mean values of arm lengths in male and female subjects of different heights.

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Table 4: Mean values of arm lengths in male and female subjects of different heights

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[Table 5] shows average forearm length of male persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm [Figure 8].

The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Figure 8: Height of the individual (male) in relation to forearm length.

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Table 5: Height of the individual (male) in relation to forearm length

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Y = −254.03 + 17.45x

Where Y = Height of the individual

−254.03 = Intercept

17.45 = Slope

X = Forearm length of the individual

[Table 6] shows average forearm length of female persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm. The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Table 6: Height of the individual (female) in relation to forearm length

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Y = 32.16 + 5.66x

Where Y = Height of the individual

32.16 = Intercept

5.66 = Slope

X = Forearm length of the individual [Figure 9]
Figure 9: Height of the individual (female) in relation to forearm length.

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Nath et al. [7] conducted a study to reconstruct stature on basis of percutaneous length of forearm bones on 199 Munda (110 males and 89 females) of Midnapur district, West Bengal in age group of 18-30 years. The mean value of stature in males was 156.19 cm whereas in this study it was 168.49 cm. Similarly the mean value of stature in Munda females was 148.64 cm whereas in East Indian females were 156.54 cm. The mean value of forearm length in Munda males and females was 24.60 cm and 22.85 cm respectively and in East Indian males & females was 24.36 cm and 22 cm respectively.

Another study conducted by Jain and Nath [8] on 132 male Brahmins of Kumaon in age range of 17-19 years, the mean value of stature was found to be 161.3 ± 6.32 cm compared with East Indian males which was 168.49 ± 5.1 cm. The mean forearm length in Brahmins was 24.61 ± 2.0 cm whereas in present study was 24.36 ± 1.32cm. The Multiplication factor calculated in Brahmins was 6.50 whereas in North Indian males were 6.91.

In a study by Ilayperuma et al. [9] on 258 medical students (140 males and 118 females) of faculty of medicine, university of Ruhana, Galle, Srilanka in age range of 20-23 years, the mean value of stature in males and females was calculated as 170.14 ± 5.22 cm and 157.55 ± 5.75. Compared with East Indian males and females height was found to be 168.49 ± 5.1 cm and 156.54 ± 7.32 cm respectively. The forearm length in Srilankan male and females was 27.56 ± 1.30 and 25.11 ± 1.24cm respectively compared with East Indian male and females was 24.36 ± 1.32 cm and 22.00 ± 2.13 cm respectively. The linear regression equation derived by Ilayperuma, Nanayakkara and Palahepitiya in males: S = 97.252 + 2.645 (Forearm length) in females: S = 68.777 + 3.536 (Forearm length) whereas in this study, for males = -254.03 + 17.45 (Forearm length) & for females = 32.16 + 5.66 (Forearm length).

Nath, Garg and Krishan 2 studied on 160 male Rajputs of tehsil Chakrata, district Dehradun, Uttar Pradesh in age range of 16-35 years and calculated mean stature to be 164.4 ± 9.22 cm. In North Indian males it was 168.49 ± 5.1 cm. The mean value of forearm length in Rajputs was 23.8 ± 1.49 and in East Indian males was 24.36 ± 1.32 cm. The multiplication factor in Rajputs was 6.92 and in East Indians were 6.91 respectively.

From the [Table 7], we see that, as the height increases, the forearm length of both male and female also increases. The difference was found to be decreased upto sub group 165-170 cms then increases in subsequent groups. There were no female found in 175-180 cms height group.
Table 7: Mean values of forearm lengths in male and female subjects of different heights

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[Table 8] shows average hand length of male persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm [Figure 10]. The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Figure 10: Height of the individual (male) in relation hand length.

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Table 8: Height of the individual (male) in relation hand length

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Y = −107.07 + 14.2x

Where Y = Height of the individual

−107.07 = Intercept

14.2 = Slope

X = Hand length of the individual

[Table 9] shows average hand length of female persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm [Figure 11]. The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Figure 11: Height of the individual (female) in relation to hand length.

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Table 9: Height of the individual (female) in relation to hand length

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Y = 15.38 + 8.08x

Where Y = Height of the individual

15.38 = Intercept

8.08 = Slope

X = Hand length of the individual

To compare the results of this study, with the studies done by various other scientists, a table is given below.







From the [Table 10], we see that, as the height increases, the hand length of both male and female also increases. The difference was found to be decreased upto sub group 165-170 cms then increases in subsequent groups. In 170-175 group the hand length higher than male. There were no female found in 175-180 cms height group [Figure 12].
Figure 12: Mean values of hand lengths in male and female subjects of different heights.

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[Table 11] shows average foot length of male persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm. The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Table 10: Mean values of hand lengths in male and female subjects of different heights

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Table 11: Height of the individual (male) in relation to foot length

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Y = −27.77 + 7.695x

Where Y = Height of the individual

−27.77 = Intercept

7.695 = Slope

X = Foot length of the individual [Figure 13]
Figure 13: Height of the individual (male) in relation to foot length.

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[Table 12] shows average foot length of female persons having height ranging from 150-180 cm which are again subdivided into six sub groups each having a range of 5 cm [Figure 14]. The standard deviation and standard error were calculated. Regression equation from the above table was calculated to be
Figure 14: Height of the individual (female) in relation to foot length.

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Table 12: Height of the individual (female) in relation to foot length

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Y = 77.85 + 3.58x

Where Y = Height of the individual

77.85 = Intercept

3.58 = Slope

X = Foot length of the individual

In a study by Jasuja et al. [15] and later by Singh and Phookan [16] , measurements were taken from males of four different ethnic groups in India. Also works of Giles et al. [17] , Robbins and Quamra et al. [18],[ 19] has been conducted for height estimations from foot and shoe measurements by means of a statistical method. Saxena et al. [20] conducted a study in Nigeria using 100 male medical students between the ages of 20 and 30. They took right foot lengths for calculating height & estimated the formula: height = 67.4929 ± 3.9755 X right foot length. Patel et al. [13] did a study on the students of Gujrat region to calculate correlation between foot length & height. The regression equation they calculated for males = 75.45 + 3.64 x foot length. For females = 75.41 + 3.43 x foot length. However, in this study, the regression equation for males was found to be Y = -27.77 + 7.695 X foot length & for females, Y= 77.85 + 3.58 X foot length.

Nath et al. [21] formulated multiplication factors for reconstruction of stature from foot length in Rajputs & Brahmins in Srinagar, Garhwal (U.P.). The multiplication factors were 6.87 & 6.64 for Rajput & Brahmin males & 6.72 & 6.68 for Rajput & Brahmin females respectively. In this study, the multiplication factors found to be 6.68 & 6.75 for males & females respectively.

From the [Table 13], we see that, as the height increases, the foot length of both male and female also increases. The difference was found to be increased up to subgroup 160-165 cms then decreases in subsequent groups. In 170-175 cm group the hand length higher than male. There were no female found in 175-180 cms height group [Figure 15].
Figure 15: Mean values of foot lengths in male and female subjects of different heights.

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Table 13: Mean values of foot lengths in male and female subjects of different heights

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  Conclusion Top


From the present study, it's found that some multiplication factors along with regression equations can be calculated for estimation of stature from different parameters of extremities in the population of Eastern India. It may be helpful for researchers who work in this area especially in the various medical disciplines, anthropologists and security personnel.

 
  References Top

1.
Trotter M., Gleser G.C. Estimating stature from long bones of American whites and nigroes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol 1952; 4:463-514  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Nath S, Rajni and Chhibber S. Reconstruction of stature from percutaneous length of upper and lower extremity segments among Punjabi females of Delhi. Indian Journal of Forensic Science 1990; 4:171-181.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Nath S and Krishan G. Determination of stature using percutaneous measurements of upper and lower limb bones among Hindu (Baniya) females of Delhi. Journal of Anthropological Survey of India 1990; 39: 151-166.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nath S, Garg R and Krishan G, Estimation of stature through percutaneous measurements of upper and lower limbs among male Rajputs of Dehradun. Journal of Indian Anthropological Society 1991; 26:245-249.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Anand N and Nath S. Estimation of stature through percutaneous measures of the upper and lower extremities among Rajputs of Pauri Garhwal. Indian Journal of Forensic Sciences 1991; 5:83-89.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jain P and Nath S. Estimation of stature through upper and lower limb dimensions among Brahmins of Kumaon. The Indian Journal of Physical Anthropology and Human Genetics 1997; 20:163-168.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Nath S, Duggal N and Chandra NS. Reconstruction of stature on the basis of percutaneous length of forearm bones among the Munda of Midnapur district. West Bengal Human Science 1998; 37:170-175.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Jain P and Nath S. Estimation of stature through upper and lower limb dimensions among Brahmins of Kumaon. The Indian Journal of Physical Anthropology and Human Genetics 1997; 20:163-168.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ilayperuma I, Nanayakkara G and Palahepitiya N. A model for the estimation of personal stature from the length of forearm. International Journal of Morphology 2010; 28:1081-1086.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Khanpurkar S & Radke A. Estimation of stature from the measurement of foot length, hand length and head length in Maharashtra region. IJBAMR 2012; 1:77-85  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Krishan K, Kanchan T, Sharma A. Multiplication factor versus regression analysis in stature estimation from hand and foot dimensions. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2012; 19:211-214   Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ilayperuma I, Nanayakkara G, Palahepitiya N. Prediction of personal stature based on the hand length. Galle Medical Journal 14:15-18.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Patel JP, Patel BG, Shah RK, Bhojak NR, Desai JN. Estimation of stature from hand length in Gujarat region. NHL Journal of Medical Sciences 2014; 3:41-44  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Jasuja OP & Singh G. Estimation of stature from hand and phalange length. JIAFM 2004; 26.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Jasuja OP, Singh J, Jain M. Estimation of stature from foot and shoe measurements by multiplication factors: a revised attempt. Forensic Sci. Int. 1991; 50:203-215.   Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Singh TS, Phookan M. Stature and foot size in four Thai communities of Assam, India. Antrop. Anz. 1993; 51:349-355.   Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Giles E,Vallandigham PH. Height estimation from foot and shoeprint length. J. Forensic. Sci. 1991; 36:1134-1151.   Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
RobbinsLM. Estimating height and weight from size of footprints. J Forensic Sci. 1986; 31:143-152.   Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
QuamraSR, Deodhar SD, Inder J. A metric study of feet of north-west Indians and its relationship to body height and weight. Int. J. Physiol. Antropol. Hum. Genet. 1986;12:131-138.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Saxena SK. A study of correlations and estimations of stature from hand length, hand breadth and sole length. Anthrop. Anz 1984; 42:271-276.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Nath S, Kaur S, Jain P, Joshi PC. Reconstruction of stature among Rajputs & Brahmins of Srinagar Garhwal (UP). South Asian Anthropologist 1999; 20:63-66.  Back to cited text no. 21
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12], [Table 13]



 

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